The content provided in this guide is for informational purposes only and is not intended as legal, financial, or professional advice. Readers are advised to seek the services of qualified professionals to receive personalized advice tailored to their specific situation and needs. By continuing to read this guide, you agree to not hold the author, publisher, or any of their affiliates liable for any decisions made based on the information provided herein.

U.S.Citizenship and Immigration Services and the Office of Citizenship would like to extend its appreciation to the following organizations for their support and assistance in the development of this publication:


Center for Civic Education


National Endowment for the Humanities


National Constitution Center


USCIS Historical Reference Library


Marilyn Zoidis, formerly Senior Curator, Star-Spangled Banner Project, Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History

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